1967 U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee Budget Testimony, 89th Congress 2nd Session, March 9, 1966
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Page  2 784 Wednesday, March 9, 1966. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE WITNESSES DR. MARTIN M. CUMMINGS, DIRECTOR, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE SCOTT ADAMS, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDI- CINE DR. MARJORIE P. WILSON, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR EXTRA- MURAL PROGRAMS, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE JAMES D. ISBISTER, EXECUTIVE OFFICER, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE DR. LEO J. GEHRIG, DEPUTY SURGEON GENERAL HARRY L. DORAN, CHIEF FINANCE OFFICER JAMES B. CARDWELL, DEPARTMENT DEPUTY COMPTROLLER Object classification [In thousands of dollars] 1965 actual 1966 estimate 1967 estimate PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE Personnel compensation: 11.1 Permanent positions___________________________ 11.3 Positions other than permanent__________________ 11. 5 Other personnel compensation___________________ Total personnel compensation__________________ 12.0 Personnel benefits_______________________________ 21.0 Travel and transportation of persons.....____________ 22.0 Transportation of things__________________________ 23. 0 Rent, communications, and utilities________________ 24.0 Printing and reproduction________________________ 25.1 Other services__________________________________ Project contracts________________________________ 25.2 Services of other agencies_________________________ 25.3 Payment to "National Institutes of Health management fund"________________________________________ 26.0 Supplies and materials___________________________ 31.0 Equipment____________________________________ 41.0 Grants, subsidies, and contributions_______________ Total obligations, Public Health Service_________ ALLOCATION TO LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 11.5 Personnel compensation: Other personnel compensation 24.0 Printing and reproduction________________________ Total obligations, Library of Congress___________ 99.0 Total obligations.....________________________ 1,934 2,303 2,635 18 40 54 18 10 10 1,969 2,354 2,699 152 179 207 35 75 102 3 4 6 114 136 176 157 259 279 50 80 80 646 1,287 2,028 69 108 134 372 420 658 83 109 113 162 169 194 120 330 12,555 3,931 5,509 19,231 4 4 8 3,939 5,509 19,231 Personnel summary 1965 actual 1966 estimate 1967 estimate Total number of permanent positions. Full-time equivalent of other positions Average number of all employees____ Average GS salary_________________ Average GS salary_________________ 291 3 271 8.1 $8, 243 336 5 310 8.3 $8,830 374 6 337 8.5 $9, 0840073714_000003.txt

Page  3 785 Program and financing [In thousands of dollars] 1965 actual 1966 estimate 1967 estimate Program by activities: 1. Grants: (a) Research___..... 47 8 65 245 20 65 1 000 (b) Fellowships_____ 120 (c) Training____ 1 000 (d) Construction._ _____ 7,500 (e) Publications and library support_______________ 2,935 Total, grants__________________ ... ____ 120 330 12,555 2. Direct operations: (a) Librarv operations_______________ ___________ 3,803 125 4,790 165 5 911 (b) Review and approval of grants and contracts 615 Total, direct operations......._____......... 3,928 4,955 6,526 Total program costs, funded i____........... 4,048 -109 5,285 224 19,081 Change in selected resources 2___......................... 150 10 Total obligations.....___......_____............... 3,939 19 5,509 19,231 Financing: 25 Unobligated balance lapsing_______.............._____ New obligational authority____________________ 3,958 5,509 19,231 New obligational authority: 3,958 5,510 -1 19,231 41 Transferred to "Office of the Surgeon General, salaries and expenses" (42 U.S.C. 226)_____________.....________ 43 Appropriation (adjusted)________________________ 3,958 5,509 19, 231 Relation of obligations to expenditures: 3,939 1,127 -1,067 -47 5,509 1,067 -1,976 19,231 1,976 -12,982 3,953 4,600 8,225 i Includes capital outlay as follows: 1965, $162,000; 1966, $169,000; 1967, $194,000. ' Selected resources as of June 30 are as follows: Unpaid undelivered orders, 1964, $959,000 (1965 adjust- ments, -$74,000); 1965, $776,000; 1966, $1,000,000; 1967 ,$1,150,000. Mr. Fogarty. The committee will come to order. We will now take up the Library of Medicine. Doctor, I under- stand this is the greatest library in the world. I hope you can prove it this afternoon. Dr. Cummings. I am going to try to convince you that your compli- ment is deserved. General Statement This year the National Library of Medicine completes its first decade in the Public Health Service. Ten years have passed since the enact- ment of the Hill-Kennedy bill (Public Law 84-941), the basic enabling legislation for the National Library of Medicine, and in that time the Library has made great strides in contributing biomedical information support to institutions, scientists, practitioners, and students dedicated to i mproving the health of the Nation. During the past decade, four significant phenomena have occurred with profound effects on the National Library of Medicine. First, there is the explosive growth of scientific literature. Second, there is0073714_000004.txt

Page  4 786 the tremendous expansion of health research accompanied by an in- creasing urgency to apply new knowledge to the improvement of health. Third, there is the resulting sophistication and specialization of health science, education, and practice which has carried the scope of medicine far beyond its earlier boundaries to include physical, mathematical, and behavioral sciences. Fourth, there is the so-called cybernetic revolution bringing forth complex, sophisticated computers and other automated equipment to be applied to library development. These phenomena create both problems and opportunities for those responsible for gathering, processing, and disseminating medical and related scientific information. More information is required faster by the health scientist and practitioner than ever before. The increased volume of medical and related literature poses difficult handling, re- trieval, and dissemination problems. The increased need to apply new knowledge to daily health problems has focused attention on the Library's resources and potential for continuing education of physi- cians and members of other health professions. The increased sophis- tication and specialization of the health sciences creates literature which is more difficult to analyze and index meaningfully. However, the advances in electronic data processing and other techniques of automation provide the opportunity for librarians, documentalists, and other information specialists to overcome many of the communi- cation problems and achieve improved access to the storehouse of scientific knowledge. The National Library of Medicine has responded to the challenge of the past decade. It has adopted new techniques to perform its basic mission. In doing so, it has been evolving from a traditional research library to a modern, active biomedical communications center. The success achieved can be appreciated by examining some major National Library of Medicine program accomplishments: medlars Unquestionably, the Library's most significant accomplishment in the past decade was the development and installation of the medical literature analysis and retrieval system (MEDLARS). It was the first application of a computer to the problems of scientific informa- tion handling in a library. MEDLARS has been outstanding in its success. We now have over 400,000 citations to important medical articles on magnetic tape. Rapid searching of this computer data store provides answers to complex bibliographic requests. User reception of MEDLARS has been enthusiastic in the medical community and, as requested by congressional action, the National Library of Medicine has pressed on to decentralize the search and retrieval capability of MEDLARS to achieve the widest possible dis- semination of information important to the progress of medicine. This effort began in fiscal year 1965. Two decentralized search centers are in operation at this time with three more approved projects to be activated in 1966. These and others will form a reference searcli and retrieval network serving various regions of the country.0073714_000005.txt

Page  5 787 MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) DEVELOPMENT To provide a uniform system of classification for the medical litera- ture and more fully exploit the MEDLARS computer system the Na- tional Library of Medicine has developed and is continuously revising medical subject headings (MESH) used to index the medical litera- ture of the world. The list of medical subject headings is a dynamic one that grows as medical science progresses. AUTOMATION OF LIBRARY SERVICES We are vigorously pursuing new applications of automation to the Library's operations. The preparation of the catalog has been auto- mated with significant potential national savings. Literature pro- curement and maintenance of the serial record are proposed for auto- mation soon. Eventually, we must move to an advanced graphic- image storage and retrieval system. Because of the rapid growth of MEDLARS services and the requirements of the newly developing systems, the Library will require new computer equipment in 1968 (650 hours of computer time were used in December 1965). We are re- questing funds in 1967 to begin reprograming and conversion to the new system. EXISTING LIBRARY SERVICES As the cornerstone of the national medical library system, the National Library of Medicine must perform its library services in the most complete and efficient manner possible. The demands on the Library for services are very great and ever increasing. In 1965 we acquired 91,000 publications, cataloged 17,000 titles, bound and re- paired 25,000 volumes, answered 21,000 reference inquiries, filled 230,- 000 loan requests, and microfilmed 2.1 million pages for interlibrary loan. There was a 56-percent increase in total reference services in 1965 over 1963. In the preamble of the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965, which you cosponsored, Mr. Chairman, the Congress recognized that the past 2 decades have brought an unprecedented expansion of knowl- edge in the health sciences and. with it, massive growth in the quantity and changes in the nature of biomedical information. It also noted that there has not been corresponding growth in facilities and tech- niques to support the collection, organization, processing, and dissemi- nation of this information. Included in the 1967 budget are $7.5 million for inaugurating a construction grants program to begin upgrading the facilities of the Nation's biomedical libraries; SI.5 million for grants and contracts for research and development directed toward solving some of the difficult problems facing biomedical libraries in storing, retrieving, and transmitting biomedical information; $1 million for training 2'rants to increase the number of medical librarians and related infor- mation specialists available to serve the country's biomedical libraries; $120,000 for special scientific projects; $780,000 for support of publi- cations, such as translations, bibliographies, critical reviews, indexes,0073714_000006.txt

Page  6 788 and abstracts; and $2.7 million for grants to biomedical libraries for strengthening their resources and services. The budget also includes modest increases for our intramural direct service program activities. In summary, our total request is for $19,231,000, representing a net increase of $9,547,000 over 1966. The principal item of increase is $8,900,000 for use in carrying out the provisions of the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965. BUDGET REQUEST Mr. Fogarty. Thank you, Doctor. If we assume that you get the requested supplemental appropriation of $4,175,000 your adjusted appropriation for 1966 is $9,684,000, and the request for 1967 is $19,231,000, an increase of $9,547,000, which is about three times your original 1966 appropriation. Dr. Cummings. That is correct, sir. MEDICAL LIBRARY ASSISTANCE ACT Mr. Fogarty. Most of this is due to the Medical Library Assistance Act; is it not ? Dr. Cummings. That is correct, sir. Mr. Fogarty. Just how much of the 1966 and 1967 budgets are under the authorization of that act ? Dr. Cummings. The $8,900,000 requested as an increase for this fiscal year all falls under the terms of the Medical Library Assistance Act. The remainder of the increase would be applied to improving the direct service operations of the National Library of Medicine itself. There is a supplemental budget for fiscal year 1966 which requests $4,175,000 to implement the act this year. Mr. Fogarty. Would you take the obligations by activities sched- uled on page 214 and break it down between what is authorized under the act and what is under your older authorization. Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Mr. Fogarty. You can get a table and place it in the record. Dr. Cummings. I have such a table, sir. Mr. Fogarty. You can pass it around if you have more, and we will put that in the record.0073714_000007.txt

Page  7 789 (The table follows:) Authorizations in Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 and amounts requested in 1967 National Library of Medicine budget Authoriza- tions for 1967 in Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 1967 National Library of Medicine budget Construction (sec. 393)____________________________________________ Training (sec. 394)________________________________________________ Special scientific projects (sec. 395)___________________________________ Research and development (.see. 396)_________________________________ Library resources (sec. 397)_________________________________________ Regional medical libraries (sec. 398)__________________________________ Publications support (sec. 399)______________________________________ Branches of the National Library of Medicine (sec. 378)_________________ Total____________________.....—.....______________________ National Library of Medicine direct operations and review and approval of grants and contracts___________________________................---- $10, 000, 000 1,000,000 500,000 3,000,000 3,000, 000 2, 500, 000 1,000, 000 2,000, 000 23, 000,000 Total, 1967 National Library of Medicine budget. $7,500, 000 1,000,000 120,000 1, 500, 000 2, 700,000 780,000 13,600, 000 5, 631, 000 19, 231,000 CONSTRUCTION GRANT PROGRAM Mr. Fogarty. Over three-quarters of the increase, $7,500,000, is to start the construction grant program. This is just a drop in the bucket compared with the need; is it not ? Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Our surveys made last year suggest that the construction needs of our Nation's medical libraries would ap- proximate $100 million over a 5-year period. Mr. Fogarty. That is $20 million a year. Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Mr. Fogarty. Compared to $7,500,000. Dr. Cummings. Yes. The authorization of the Library Assistance Act includes a ceiling of $10 million per year for a 4-year period. I should add that we believe that getting started currently will assist impressively the users of our libraries. We are convinced that even the lesser amounts will be used most wisely. ELIGIBILITY AND MATCHING REQUIREMENTS Mr. Fogarty. What are the eligibility requirements and matching requirements? . Dr. Cummings. Sir, the eligibility broadly, as defined by this act, includes schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, public health and related fundamental and applied sciences. These schools may com- pete for resource grants and construction grants.0073714_000008.txt

Page  8 790 It is truly a health sciences library assistance act rather than a narrowly defined medical library assistance act. With respect to the authorizations and matching requirements, the construction grants may be matched up to a 3 to 1 ratio. The resource grants are designed on a formula basis with no original grant to exceed 60 percent of the existing operative budget of the library, phasing down to 50 percent, 40 percent. 30 percent, and 20 percent over a 5-year period. No single resource grant may exceed $200,000 by the terms of the law. Mr. Fogarty. "What about opticians and optometrists ? Dr. Cummings. We believe that schools of optometry and schools which train opticians may compete for funds under the terms of this act. Mr. Fogarty. Can they ? Dr. Cummings. I believe they are eligible to compete. Mr. Fogarty. Are they eligible ? Dr. Cummings. I believe they are eligible. Mr. Fogarty. What about chiropractors ? Dr. Cummings. I think that schools which train chiropractors might also be eligible to apply for grants. Mr. Fogarty. Are there some good schools in this area ? Dr. Cummings. I do not believe I could really pass professional judgment on that question, sir. I am assuming there are, and of course each application will reviewed by a study section and by the Library's Board of Regents. Mr. Fogarty. What about the matching requirements ? Dr. Cummings. The matching requirements for construction grants are defined in the law. Mr. Fogarty. Put it in the record. Dr. Cummings. There is a 3 to 1 matching ratio. Mr. Fogarty. Increases for other parts of the new program were discussed just a few days ago. Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Mr. Fogarty. Of course your detailed justifications will be in the record. Is there anything further you would like to say? Dr. Cummings. I would like to reinforce, however my statement at the hearings last week that we have a deep conviction based on what we perceive to be reliable data, that regional medical libraries are re- quired to provide equal access to the store of medical information. I am quite hopeful in terms of this budget and the review of the 1966 supplemental budget that there will be an opportunity to implement this program, Mr. Chairman. DECENTRALIZATION OF MEDLARS Mr. Fogarty. I think there will. How are you progressing with the decentralization of MEDLARS and what do you plan for next year? Dr. Cummings. We have two active decentralized MEDLARS search centers, one at the University of Colorado, a second at the Uni- versity of California, Los Angeles. The board of regents at its last0073714_000009.txt

Page  9 791 meeting authorized the establishment of three new MEDLARS re- search centers, one to be placed at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, a second to be placed at the University of Alabama, in Bir- mingham, and a third at Harvard University in Boston. The library's plans call for the establishment of two additional MEDLARS regional centers during fiscal year 1967. Mr. Fogarty. What advantage, do you see in this kind of a program ? Dr. Cummings. The library really serves as a massive input system and does not serve as the sole outlet of the biomedical information stored on tape. We believe that it is economical for us to duplicate our tapes and to share them freely with universities and medical schools in all communities. A set of MEDLARS tapes can be repro- duced for less than $900, thus giving a local library or a local univer- sity the same power of retrieval as we enjoy in Bethesda. I believe the closer we can bring these information services to the user, the better service we can provide the Nation at large. TRANSFER TO THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Mr. Fogarty. What about this million dollars we talked about this morning that we are going to transfer to the National Science Founda- tion ? Couldn't you do this j ob yourself ? Dr. Cummings. Yes; I believe we could do this. Mr. Fogarty. And save a lot of paperwork. Dr. Cummings. It would expedite the flow of the negotiations with the institutions involved, but as Dr. Shannon so aptly pointed out---- Mr. Fogarty. I think you know more about it than he does. So why don't you tell us what you think. Dr. Cummings. I think we are really up against two issues. A fact that Executive Order 10900 requires the Library to have all of its con- tractual negotiations handled by the National Science Foundation. Mr. Fogarty. Suppose we cut out that million dollars. What would happen ? Dr. Cummings. I think this would be a disservice, sir, to the physi- cians and scientists of this country who need the translations of the foreign literature. Mr. Fogarty. Can't you do it better than the Science Foundation ? Dr. Cummings. It is hard to say whether we could do it better. I would like to believe we could do it as well and perhaps more expedi- tiously. But to return to my earlier remark, it would require some personnel to handle the contractual relationships. Mr. Fogarty. Put in the record how much you need in personnel. Dr. Cummings. We will be glad to provide that for the record. Statement Relating to Administration of Special Foreign Currency Programs by the National Library of Medicine To assume administrative responsibilities for programs conducted under sec- tion 104(k) of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended, would require the addition of $59,000 and four positions to the staff of the National Library of Medicine. These include: (1) a program officer, who would be concerned with negotiation of agreements; (2) a staff associate, who would be concerned with the transfer of materials to be translated, the quality0073714_000010.txt

Page  10 792 control of the products, and the monitoring of the administrative arrangements; (3) a secretarial assistant: and (4) a fiscal clerk. In addition to salaries the above amount would provide supplies, postage, and equipment for the new activities. It would also provide funds to reimburse the Clearing House for Scientific and Technical Information or other appropriate group for handling and distribution services. CONVERSION TO NEW COMPUTER SYSTEM Mr. Fogarty. I notice you have a small increase to get ready for conversion to a new computer system you hope to install in 1968. What is the need for the new system; what will it do that the present system will not; and how much will the new system cost? Mr. Farnum is the expert on computers. He has been out to see several of the Department's installations. Dr. Cummings. I am sorry he has not been out to see us, but I hope he will call on us soon. I think our computer system really is an ex- ample of what Mr. Farnum was concerned with earlier today. We had at the time of installation of our computer (1962) the most sophisti- cated and perhaps the largest memory core that could be applied to the program. As Mr. Farnum pointed out, the technology has changed very rapidly and we now find ourselves locked in, if you will, in a rigid hardware configuration that does not permit us to make changes to speed up the input and throughput. More importantly, Mr. Chair- man, the growth of the literature has exceeded anyone's expectations and we are literally saturating the capacity of our system. In fiscal year 1967 it is likely that we will have to rent time on a compatible computer elsewhere. In substance, we are hopeful to take the route of a redesign of our MEDLARS program, permitting us to acquire a more flexible system. We must be able to add graphic images into the system, also, much specialized information, such as relates to drugs and chemicals. We need to have the system designed with a network capacity so that other computers and terminals can relate to the cen- tral NLM store. CONNECTION WITH THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Mr. Fogarty. What connection, if any, do you have with the Library of Congress? Dr. Cummings. We have very close professional connections with the Library of Congress. We share our materials. The Librarian of Congress is a member of our Board of Regents. I serve on the Li- brarian's Federal Library Committee, Mr. Fogarty. Mr. Michel? Mr. Michel. No questions. Mr. Fogarty. Mr. Farnum? Mr. Farnum. Doctor, you are on my list shortly to be visited. Dr. Cummings. Thank you. extent of utilization of computer capacity Mr. Farnum. What percent of capacity is your central system operating under now ? Dr. Cummings. We are running two and a half shifts out of the potential three-shift schedule.0073714_000011.txt

Page  11 793 Mr. Farnum. You are pretty well loaded. Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir; we are concerned with our load. Mr. Farnum. Are you happy with your collection system and the method that you have to employ to collect the information ? Dr. Cummings. Yes. EXPANDED USE OF AUTOMATION We believe the system to acquire information is working well. But we have a big deficiency, Mr. Farnum, in relating this input to the automation of the total library activity. We still, for example, are compelled to use the more traditional acquisition and bookkeeping methods when we know full well that this activity is subject to auto- mation. The greatest improvement we have made in addition to the MEDLARS program has been automating the catalog. This has been done quietly by the staff of the NLM. Since January of this year, medical libraries throughout the country have been able to obtain a biweekly printout of every item we acquire at the National Library of Medicine. This biweekly catalog is sold by the Government Print- ing Office for $15 per annual subscription. We estimate that relieving other libraries of duplicative cataloging may save the Nation more than $4 million. I am convinced that automation is the answer to many of our logistic problems. DESCRIPTION OF AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT Mr. Farnum. I assume your memory system, outside of the core, is on tape. Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Mr. Farnum. Your problem on capacity is the ability of the machine to handle the updating; is that correct ? Dr. Cummings. That is correct. We are particularly concerned about file maintenance, updating, and, most importantly, our through- put time. The system was designed, Mr. Farnum, as a batch process- ing system. We collect 20 to 40 search requests and process in batches. This does not have the efficiency of real time access or rapid throughput. Mr. Farnum. What about your retrieval system? It is random access? Dr. Cummings. We have no random access capability. Mr. Farnum. Is this what is in the future for your configuration ? Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir; we believe that random access capability will facilitate the entire information storage and retrieval activity. Mr. Farnum. Let us go outside your system then to the medical universities you were talking about and providing them with maximum information at the university. Are you considering, then, hooking up your central system by data transmission to provide immediate infor- mation out to universities ? Dr. Cummings. Precisely; this is part of the Library's planning. Mr. Farnum. Will it be then on the basis of requests and informa- tion submitted or will it be on the basis of data transmission providing their ADP system with information which would be instantly avail- able there without requests back to the central system ?0073714_000012.txt

Page  12 794 Dr. Cummings. What we hope is to have a two-track system. One would permit the local physician or scientist to make a rapid search within his own institution. The second track would permit the local institution to query a regional library or the National Library of Medicine for those materials that are not available locally. In addi- tion one of the improvements we are seeking, Mr. Farnum, is on the input side. When you visit the Library you will find that we have professional indexers reading, analyzing, and typing summaries of the literature. These are passed to a flex-o-writer operation where we have the same problem Dr. Lindner described, of training flex-o- writer operators who do not stay with you. We feel there is no reason why we cannot have a direct on-line input from indexer to computer. Mr. Farnum. This is eight-channel tape ? Dr. Cummings. Yes. Mr. Farnum. If you get flex-o-writers I assume you would get an eight-channel tape as a byproduct for the purpose of storing infor- mation. Dr. Cummings. Yes. CENTER OF BIOMEDICAL COMMUNICATIONS Mr. Farnum. Let us go beyond the Medical University Library, what is in the future as far as you can see for further dissemination of information out to centers within the community where you do not have medical schools, so that there is access to information by phy- sicians and surgeons ? Dr. Cummings. The Board of Regents has been deeply concerned with this problem and they have been working with the staff of the Library on a new 5-year plan designed to relate library resources to the practice of medicine, to education, as well as to research needs. One of the beliefs of the Board of Regents is that we should prepare ourselves not only to distribute books, journals, and photocopies there- of, and not only to distribute magnetic tapes, but to place microfilm stores in the vicinity of the user. In addition, we have been advised by the Board of Regents that we should concern ourselves with other forms of information, such as audiovisual materials and unpublished records. To accomplish all of these things, we feel that within the Public Health Service—and the Regents have identified the Library as the proper site—a total Center for Biomedical Communication should be developed. The emergence of segmental pieces of information centers has created a somewhat chaotic state. We have multiple specialized information centers with no central referral system. A central referral system is one of the great needs, I believe, in the health sciences. The Center would pro- vide the opportunity for experimentation on linkages such as you de- scribed. For these reasons we intend, quite frankly, to present to the Public Health Service and to the Department what we believe is a well-structured plan for the creation of a Center of Biomedical Com- munications. Mr. Farnum. Have you ever considered using similar electronic devices as that used by newspaper and wire services to reproduce page proofs of interesting periodicals in your library off microfilm or off your memory core ?0073714_000013.txt

Page  13 795 Dr. Cummings. This has been considered. The Library for rea- sons of economy chose xerography as its principal photoduplication method. Because of our concern with the deterioration of our collection, we are designing a new graphic image storage and retrieval system with the assistance of the National Bureau of Standards that would use microfilm as a basic means of preserving and transporting total text. With respect to the newspaper and magazine use of high-speed equip- ment, we are very proud—and I think this committee should be very proud—that the National Library of Medicine has the only computer- driven phototypesetter. I can tell you that many major printers and publishers have visited the Library and have commented on the high quality of the image from this special unit. We are sharing this, I should say, with NASA and we intend to share this equipment with other Federal agencies that have a need for this type of output. ESTIMATED COST OF BIOMEDICAL COMMUNICATIONS CENTER Mr. Farnum. What do you estimate it will cost to accomplish the goals that you have been discussing with me, in a 20-year period, to automate your system ? Dr. Cummings. I would be less than honest if I responded on a 20- year basis. We have looked ahead 5 years, Mr. Farnum, and our preliminary estimates for the Library's development of a Center of Biomedical Communications to include all of the programs that you have outlined, and those which I have identified, might reach the order of $50 million a year at the end of the 5-year period. Mr. Farnum. All of the technological advances in the equipment we are talking about necessary to accomplish what you say you would like to do is available right now. Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Mr. Farnum. Or within a short period of time if it was ordered. It is just a matter of having it, and programing it, and getting it set up and getting the bugs out, and so on. Dr. Cummings. That is correct. We believe that nearly all the hardware necessary to go into this more flexible, high-speed system can be acquired at this time. Mr. Farnum. On your microfilm, you say you are using xerography. I imagine you are using the microfilm to produce the xerography. Dr. Cummings. That is right, We have mobile cameras that were developed in the library. The cameras go to the books rather than the books going to the cameras. Reel film is processed by the library in batches. Xerography is performed the next day, and on the following day we send the user a copy of full text by mail. Mr. Farnum. Do you have one of the large machines ? Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. We have one of the early large machines. I want to express some concern about this. We have had a fire in our library as a result of that machine being overheated. I cannot put a dollar value on the National Library of Medicine's collection, but I have real fear of fire. Some day we may suffer the fate of the great Library of Alexandria if we are not more careful with this equipment. Mr. Farnum. I want to brag a little, Mr. Chairman.0073714_000014.txt

Page  14 796 Mr. Fogarty. You go ahead and brag. Mr. Farnum. I worked to develop the first system in the country, in the use of the large xerography machine in the reproduction of driv- er's licenses, and this is one of them right here. Mr. Fogarty. He is an expert in this field. Why don't you get him out there ? Dr. Cummings. We will try to recruit him, Mr. Chairman. We are looking for a photographic engineer right now. Mr. Farnum. Many things happened since then because that was an early reproduction. I wonder on quick reproduction and cheap repro- duction do you use the silver print method of reader-printer to repro- duce off a microfilm a single copy of something I might want ? Do you have this kind of equipment ? Dr. Cummings. I am sorry I cannot tell you whether we are using that system or whether we are using Kalvar. Mr. Adams can respond to this question. Mr. Adams. We do have that capability. For any quick need such as you suggest we would use the Xerox. Mr. Farnum. Something that would be reproduced in 15 seconds. Mr. Adams. Yes, we use one of our 914's to reproduce that. We do have these capabilities. Mr. Farnum. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. STUDY by office of science AND TECHNOLOGY Mr. Fogarty. I have just one final question, Doctor. I have had some rather vague comments, and I do not think any of them good, about some study that the Office of Science and Technology had made. I understand this group who made the study came up with some very unusual and peculiar and strange recommendations. I have not gotten the definite details yet, but I am sure you know what they are. Will you tell the committee about this study and the recommendations they have made and supply the committee with a copy of the study and the recommendations ? Dr. Cummings. Yes, I would be pleased to provide a copv of the report to the members of the committee. I will try to briefly sum- marize the study which you have referred to. The study was carried out by a private ccontraotor at the request of the Office of Science and Technology. The study called for a report in 90 days. The purpose of the study originallv was to reexamine the medical library construction needs of this Nation. During the course of the evolution of the study, its purpose was broadened con- siderably to design a national medical library information network. The basic recommendations of this report included several disturbing features; first, the report calls for the administrative and operative overview of the National Library of Medicine to be placed within the Office of Science and Technology rather than in its present relationship to the Public Health Service. Secondly, the report calls for the imposi- tion of Federal standards and regulations which would compel all local university or private libraries to conform to these network standards to be eligible for any support from the National Library of Medicine. The report calls for the construction of 14 warehouses or repositories of books and journals, rather than the creation and support of the re-0073714_000015.txt

Page  15 797 gional medical libraries that we discussed earlier. The report limits the services which we may provide to an audiencce of some 400,000 physicians and scientists, rather than to all individuals related to the health sciences. It would exclude, for example, services to nurses, dentists and other important health personnel. Paradoxically, Mr. Chairman, I believe the report calls for budget projections that far exceed our estimate of the needs. The report calls for a budget of $100 million in the fifth year of the implementation of the program. We believe that a national library network can be constructed much more economically. The report emphasizes manpower rather than technology. I think this was one of the fundamental technical problems I had with the report. We agree with the contractors' view that there must be a massive training program, but we believe that the numbers of individuals trained can be reduced if we introduce some of the more sophisticated technologies we have just talked about. Finally, Mr. Chairman, the report makes no reference to the Medi- cal Library Assistance Act, It shows no apparent cognizance of the congressional intent to implement the program we presented today. It recommends, for example, that no funds be spent for library con- struction until the fifth year of the program, and then a large one-shot construction program is projected. As a science administrator I would have concern that we could manage such a large program in 1 year rather than spreading it out over the 4-year period. These, I believe, are the basic elements of the report to which you refer. Mr. Fogarty. In other words, you don't think much of it. Dr. Cummings. No, sir. I think it is fair to say---- Mr. Fogarty. I agree with you. Dr. Cummings. I don't think that it is fair to say---- Mr. Fogarty. Whose idea is it ? Dr. Cummings. The history of the report, as best I can reconstruct it, goes back to the period shortly after the Medical Library Assistance Act was introduced in Congress and the Bureau of the Budget raised questions about the need for medical library construction. I believe it was the Bureau which asked OST to study this question. Mr. Fogarty. The Bureau of the Budget ? Dr. Cummings. That is my memory of the history of this report. Mr. Fogarty. I am not surprised. Did they recommend the study be made ? Dr. Cummings. I believe the request came from the Bureau of the Budget to the Office of Science and Technology asking that such a study be made. Mr. Fogarty. Is that part of the White House ? Dr. Cummings. Yes, sir. Mr. Fogarty. Are there any funds available in the White House for such a program or any program that even vaguely resembles such a program ? Dr. Cummings. Not to my knowledge, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Fogarty. How much did this study cost ? Dr. Cummings. I think the cost of the Herner study was $43,250. Mr. Fogarty. Anything else you want to say ?0073714_000016.txt

Page  16 798 Dr. Cummings. No, except to thank you for giving us this oppor- tunity to appear. Justification Material national library of medicine Amounts available for obligation 1967 Appropriation______________________________________________ Proposed supplemental______________________________________ Transferred to "Office of the Surgeon General, salaries and expenses" Total________________________________________________ $5,510,000 4,175,000 -1,000 9,684,000 $19, 231,000 19, 231,000 Obligations by activity 1966 estimate 1967 estimate Increase or decrease Posi-tions Amount Posi-tions Amount Posi-tions Amount Grants: (a) Research____ ..._______ ... $945,000 120,000 765,000 $1,000,000 120,000 1,000,000 7,500,000 2,935,000 +$55,000 (6) Fellowships__________________ (c) Training... ________________ +235,000 +7, 500,000 +735,000 2, 200,000 Total grants________________ 4,030,000 12,555,000 +8, 525,000 Direct operations: 322 30 5,314,000 340,000 344 30 6,061,000 615,000 +22 +747,000 +275,000 (6) Review and approval of grants Total direct operations______ 352 5,654,000 374 6,676,000 +22 +1,022,000 352 9,684,000 374 19, 231,000 +22 +9, 547,000 Obligations by object 1966 estimate 1967 estimate Increase or decrease Total number of permanent positions....._____.__________ Full-time equivalent of all other positions_________________ Average number of all employees________________________ 11 Personnel compensation: Permanent positions_____________________________ Positions other than permanent____________________ Other personnel compensation_____________________ Total personnel compensation____________________ 12 Personnel benefits_________________________________ 21 Travel and transportation of persons_________________ 22 Transportation of things___________________________ 23 Rent, communications, and utilities__________________ 24 Printing and reproduction______________.....________ 25 Other services____________________________________ Project contracts__________________________________ Services of other agencies___________________________ Payment to "National Institutes of Health management fund"________________________________________ 26 Supplies and materials________________________ 31 Equipment______________________________________ 41 Grants, subsidies, and contributions________________" Total obligations by object......___________________ 352 2 315 $2,335, 000 50, 000 10,500 2,395, 500 183,000 90,000 3,500 140, 000 269,000 80,000 1, 587,000 108,000 510,000 109, 000 179,000 4,030,000 9,684,000 374 3 337 $2, 634, 600 54,000 10,500 2,699,100 207,400 102,000 5,500 176,400 279,000 80,000 2,027,800 134,000 658,200 112,800 193,800 12,555,000 19, 231,000 +22 +1 +22 +$299,600 +4,000 +303,600 +24,400 +12,000 +2,000 +36,400 +10,000 +440,800 +26,000 +148,200 +3,800 +14,800 +8, 525,000 +9,547,0000073714_000017.txt

Page  17 799 Summary of changes 1966 enacted appropriation---------------------------------$5 5m 000 Proposed supplemental_______________________________ _ 4 175 000 Transferred to "Office of the Surgeon General, salaries and ex- penses"----------------------------------------------- _1( 000 1966 total estimated obligations________,________________ 9( 684 000 1967 estimated obligations_____________________________~ 19' 231' 000 Total change---------------------------------------+9> 547) u00 Increases: Mandatory: 1. Annualization of 52 positions new in 1966____________ 144, 400 2. Increase in cost of utilities and building maintenance services------------------------------------- 18, 500 Subtotal, mandatory increases_________________ 162,900 Program (intramural) : 1. Expanding the collection (4 positions)_______________ 77,000 2. Improving reference services (3 positions)___________ 35,000 3. Unpublished records program (1 position)____________ 10,000 4. Improving bibliographic services through MEDLARS (6 positions)------------------------------------ 75, 000 5. New computer system design (1 position)___________ 154,000 6. Graphic image storage and retrieval (1 position)______ 50,000 7. Automation of technical services (5 positions)_________ 118,400 8. Strengthening Library management (1 position)_______ 13,000 9. Decentralized MEDLARS_________________________ 74,000 Program (extramural) : 10. Construction of medical library facilities____________ 7,500,000 11. Research and development_________________________ 155, 000 • 12. Training--------------------------------------- 235, 000 13. Publications support_____________________________ 35, 000 14. Medical library resources_________________________ 700, 000 15. Review and approval of grants and contracts__________ 188, 700 Subtotal, program increases____________________ 9, 420,100 Gross increases______________________________ 9,583,000 Decreases: Nonrecurring equipment cost---------------------------- —36, 000 Total net change requested--------------------------- +9, 547, 000 EXPLANATION OF CHANGES Expanding the collection An increase of $77,000 and 4 positions would contribute to expanding the scope of Library acquisitions, accelerating the rate of procurement and to cata- loging the additional 2,500 books and journals acquired. Improving reference services An increase of $35,000 and three positions will permit the Library to maintain its reference services in 1967 at an acceptable level of competence and respon- siveness, and give special support to Federal health information programs. Unpublished records An increase of $10,000 and one position will enable the Libary to acquire, or- ganize, and preserve some manuscripts, personal papers, tape recorded oral in- terviews, and correspondence pertaining to the significant developments in medicine. Improving bibliographic services through MEDLARS An increase of $75,000 and six positions will contribute to a more thorough in- dexing of medical literature and expansion of "demand search" services, and provide for the accomplishment of increased workload in computer operations. 61-209—66—pt. 3---510073714_000018.txt

Page  18 800 Xciv computer system design An increase of $154,000 and one position will enable the Library to begin reprogaming and conversion to a new computer system scheduled for installation in 1968. Graphic image storage and retrieval An increase of $50,000 and one position is needed to step up the conversion of deteriorated paper to microform and further the development of a mechanized graphic retrieval system. Automation of technical services An increase of $118,400 and five positions will permit the Library to implement a centralized service that will make information about new publications more readily accessible throughout the country and reduce the national costs of du- plicative cataloging, a major factor in all research library budgets, and will enable the Library to begin applying automatic data processing techniques in purchasing literature and maintaining serial records. Strengthening library management An increase of $13,000 and one position for administrative management is necessary as a result of the expansion of library programs and management responsibilities. Decentralized MEDLARS An increase of $74,000 will support two additional university-based decen- tralized MEDLARS search centers during the last half of 1967. Construction of medical library facilities The sum of $7,500,000 will inaugurate the construction grant program in 1967 and support about 10 construction or renovation projects. Research and development An increase of $155,000 in 1967 will bring the total funding for this program up to $1,500,000 which will provide for about 30 grants or contracts for necessary research directed toward improving distribution of documents, bibliographic materials, and information to health scientists and practitioners. Training An increase of $235,000 will bring the total funding for this program in 1967 up to $1 million which will support about 20 to 24 training projects and produce 100 to 125 additional trained individuals each year to undertake careers in medical librarianship and related biomedical information specialties. Publications support An increase of $35,000 will bring the total for this program up to $780,000 in 1967 and will provide support needed for important biomedical publications ac- tivities such as translations, bibliographies, critical reviews, indexes, and ab- stracting services. Medical library resources An increase of $700,000 will bring the total for this program to $2,700,000 in 1967 and will enable the library to further implement a program of grant support to local medical libraries for strengthening collections, improving access to hold- ings, introducing new technologies in health science librarianship and acquir- ing needed equipment. Review and approval of grants and contracts An increase of $188,700 in 1967 will be used to reimburse the NIH manage- ment fund for reimbursable obligations for grants and contracts managaement services, support advisory committees, and other administrative expenses as- sociated with an expanded extramural program. Explanation of transfers Transfer to "Office of the Surgeon General, Salaries and Expenses" 1966 estimate___________________________________________________«1 000 Purpose: Transfer to Office of the Surgeon General for publication of PHS World.0073714_000019.txt

Page  19 801 Library operal ions and research 1966 estimate 1967 estimate Increase or decrease Posi-tions Amount Posi-tions Amount Posi-tions Amount Personnel compensation Other expenses....._. . 352 $2,578, 500 7,105,500 374 $2.906, 500 16,324,500 +22 $328, 000 9,219,000 Total... _____ 352 9, 684, 000 374 19,231,000 +22 9, 547,000 Summary of program 1966 estimate 1967 estimate Increase or decrease Posi-tions Amount Posi-tions Amount Posi-tions Amount Medical library assistance, grants and contracts: Research and development: S945. 000 400,000 $1,000,000 500,000 +$55.000 Contracts (from library opera- +100, 000 Total, research and develop- 1,345,000 120.000 765.000 1,500, 000 120,000 1,000,000 7, 500.000 +155,000 Special projects (fellowship +235,000 +7,500, 000 Publication support: 200,000 545, 000 235,000 545,000 +35,000 Contracts (from library oper- Total, publication sup- 745, 000 2,000,000 780, 000 2,700,000 +35,000 +700,000 Subtotal, grants and con- 4,975, 000 5,314, 000 -945,000 344 13,600, 000 6,061,000 -1,045,000 +22 +8,625.000 Direct operations: 322 +747, C01 Less contracts included above---- -100,000 Intramural library operations 322 (2) 30 4,369, 000 (400, 000) 340,000 344 (2) 30 5,016,000 (474, 000) 615,000 +22 +647,000 (+74, 000) Review and approval of grants and +275,0OC Total, National Library of Medi- 352 9, 684, 000 374 19,231,000 +22 +9,574,000 MEDICAL LIBRARY ASSISTANCE, GRANTS AND CONTRACTS The Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 authorizes a program of support and assistance to the health sciences libraries of the Nation in seven major (1) Conduct of research in medical library science, and the development of new system and techniques for processing, storing, and retrieving information; (2) Compilation and dissemination of important biomedical information through the award of special scientific grants to scholars; (3)' Training of biomedical librarians and information specialists; (4) Construction of new, and improvement of existing, library facilities: (5) Financial support of biomedical communications: (6) Improvement and expansion of basic library resources, particularly liter- ature collections; and (7) Development of regional medical libraries. The largest part of the libraries extramural program deals with the imple- mentation of this act. However, programs of extramural grants m the history0073714_000020.txt

Page  20 802 of medicine and drug literature, training in medical librarianship, and contract support of biomedical publications, in existence at the time of the act's passage, will be continued as well. Research and development.—Due to its volume and character, published bio- medical literature poses difficult problems of information storage, retrieval, and transmission. The uses to which this information is put are of such vital impor- tance in terms of the health needs of the Nation that the urgency for improving these aspects of its handling cannot be too strongly emphasized. Nearly all phases of current health science library practice need to be reassessed to develop more efficient skills and technologies. In addition, research is needed in the uses of published information by scientists, teachers and practitioners, whose require- ments for this information are poorly understood and need to be examined criti- cally. Studies are also needed to analyze the interrelationships between institu- tions which supply informational services to health scientists and provide data which may lead to more efficient distribution of documents and services. The program of research in the history of the life sciences will be continued. Last year the Senate Appropriations Committee added $30,000 above the 1966 Presi- dent's budget request for the history of medicine grant program. With these funds we were able to award two grants for investigations in this field. The $1,500,000 requested will provide for about 30 grants or contracts to support research and development projects as described above. The budget for 1966 and 1967 reflects the application of the newly authorized cost-sharing arrangements to competing research grant projects (new and renewal). This cost-sharing plan considers the full indirect cost of the research project in arriving at the Federal and non-Federal share. For continuation of previously approved projects the earlier limitation of 20 percent or less for indirect costs is applied with an assur- ance of some sponsor cost participation. Special scientific projects (fellowships).—With the very great increases in pro- grams for the conduct of medical research has come a concomitant increase in the rate of publication of scientific results. This makes it necessary that the results be compiled, reviewed, evaluated, and placed in historical perspective in order that they may be made available to busy practitioners and scientists in a form in which they are most useful. Opportunities for qualified scientists to devote a full-time period to such an effort with the resources of major research libraries such as NLM at their disposal are almost nonexistent. The Medical Library Assistance Act authorizes awards for such purposes. The $120,000 re- quested will allow the support of from 6 to 10 such awards. Training.—There are only about 3,000 librarians with specialized training or experience in health science librarianship to serve the 6,000 health science libraries in the country. In order to help overcome the existing manpower deficits, additional training activities will be initiated and existing ones expanded. The requested $1 million will support about 20 to 24 training projects. The overall effort supported by the projects will produce 100 to 125 additional trained persons each year to undertake careers in medical librarianship and related biomedical information specialities. Support will also be extended to activities designed to provide more intensive training than has been available in the past and to update the skills of personnel now practicing in this field. Construction of medical library facilities.—The Association of American Med- ical Colleges has reported that a survey conducted in 1964 showed that its member institutions required more than ?S7 million for medical library con- struction and renovation. This sum represents about $65 million in Federal funds when the 75-percent matching rate as allowed in the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 is applied. The survey did not take into account the needs of freestanding health science libraries and those in other health profes- sions educational institutions. Provisions of the library facilities needed by freestanding and other libraries will require an additional $10 million in Fed- eral funds. The $7,500,000 requested will inaugurate the construction grant program in 1967 and support about 10 construction or renovation projects Publications support.—The Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 authorize* a program of grants and contracts for the support of biomedical publications. The program will be implemented by support of publications other than those which contain original journal articles. Examples of the types of activitv supported under this authority include translations, bibliographies critical reviews, indexes, and abstracting services. Under other legislative authoritv the Library has supported publications activities for a number of years The $780,000 requested for 1967 will support approximately five grants for $2^ fifth and nine contracts for $545,000. * °,uw0073714_000021.txt

Page  21 803 Medical library resources.—The health science library resource need is of great magnitude and is so directly related to health research, to the training of health manpower, and to providing the information needed by the health science practitioner that it requires special attention. As the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee indicated in reporting the Medical Library Assist- ance Act, "resource needs for libraries in schools of medicine, dentistry, osteop- athy, nursing, and hospitals are estimated to exceed $85 million." The program of grant support in this area authorized by the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 will provide for strengthening collections of health science libraries through the purchase of books, journals, and other informational resources; for improving the access to the holdings of the libraries by providing assistance in cataloging, binding and other services, and procedures for processing library resource materials; for the introduction of new technologies in health science librarianship; and for the acquisition of photoduplication devices, facsimile equipment, film projectors, microfilm readers, and other needed equipment. Ap- proximately 225 health science libraries will receive grants in 1967 from the $2,700,000 requested. Direct operations Library operations Expanding the collection.—The Library has a basic responsibility to gather, organize, and preserve all printed information throughout the world which can be used to advance medical research, teaching, and practice. The scope of scientific inquiry is constantly broadened in the search for relevant information. As a result of the broadened base of medicine, the Library must constantly locate and acquire additional scientific books and journals on subjects that have only recently become necessary source materials. In addition to broadening the scope of its coverage, the Library must meet the steadily rising volume and costs of scientific publications. Twelve percent more scientific books were published in 1962 than in 1961, 18 percent more in 1963 than in 1962, and 24 percent more in 1964 than in 1963. From 1956 to 1964 the aver- age price of American medical periodicals increased from $9.09 to $13.25 (46 percent) and that of American medical books, increased from $7.73 to $11.22 (45 percent). Delay in purchasing this literature on a current basis leads to serious prob- lems of locating commercial sources and, more importantly, denies ready user- access to important information. Also some medical literature goes out of print quickly and the Library is unable to acquire it if it does not act promptly. This is particularly true of some foreign literature. Four positions and $77,000 would be used to expand the scope of coverage, to accelerate the rate of procurement and to catalog the additional 2,500 books and journals acquired. Reference services.—The Library attempts to meet a continuing need for pro- fessional reference assistance at local, national, and international levels. In addition to assisting research investigators in the local area, the Library has become recognized as a comprehensive source of materials by medical practi- tioners, scientists, and librarians throughout the world. MEDLARS has added a new dimension to the service capabilities of the Li- brary, and this has resulted in additional demands on our reference staff. Tra- ditional techniques must now be integrated with computer operations to be fully responsive to highly specialized requests for literature search and research. There was a 56-percent increase in total reference services in 1965 over 1963. A major impact has been felt in number of mail inquiries answered which in- creased by over 30 percent in 1965 over the previous year. It is estimated that 1967 increases over 1964 will be 17 percent for total requests received and 30 per- cent for interlibrary loans. «n„„ >. • * • * Three new positions and $35,000 are requested for 1967 to maintain reference services at an acceptable level of competence and responsiveness, and to provide special support to Federal health information programs. Unpublished records.—By congressional mandate, the Library attempts to col- lect all published information on medicine, and though this literature reflects the results of medical research and practice, it often fails to place the scientists' work in a social and historical perspective. It is important to know the reasons and social pressures which result in a particular research project or institu- tional policy if we are to fully understand the national quest for good health.0073714_000022.txt

Page  22 804 For such information, it is necessary to go beyond the printed record to manu- script sources, tape-recorded oral interviews, personal papers, and correspond- ence. The Library proposes to acquire, organize, and preserve resources of this nature relating to significant developments in medicine. One position and $10,000 are requested for this program in 1967. Improving bibliographic services through MEDLARS.—MEDLARS, the Li- brary's computer-based information storage and retrieval system, has been in operation since January 1964. By the end of August 1965, 330,000 references to medical journal articles had been entered into the computer files and printed in the monthly and annual Index Medicus. The following specialized bibliogra- phies are being produced on a recurring basis : Bibliography of Medical Reviews : Index to Rheumatology; Cerebrovascular Bibliography; Index to Dental Litera- ture ; and Bibliography of Fibrinolysis, Thrombolysis, and Blood Clotting; and others are being developed. More than 2,600 demand searches have been per- formed in response to requests from outside the Library, and many searches have been performed for internal purposes. To allow Medlars to make its optimum contribution to the medical sciences, it is essential that all significant medical communications be indexed for pub- lication and retrieval purposes. It has been estimated that there are about 300,000 significant documents in the current biomedical literature that should be included in Medlars each year. Closely related to the problem of increasing production from Medlars is the improvement of the quality of the bibliographic products of the system through continued development of medical subject headings. It is important that the Library's subject heading specialists keep abreast of new medical concepts and develop terminology in such closely related areas as biochemistry, biophysics, and the environmental, social, and behavioral sciences. To reach a production goal for 1967 of I sO.000 new articles for Index Medicus (bringing the total data file to over 650,000 articles), 15 specialized recurring bibliographies, and 7,200 demand searches, a toal of 6 new positions and $75,000 are required. These funds will be used to support additional indexing, bibliog- raphic services, computer operations, and to rent additional computer time from another Government agency. Xew computer system design.—The rapid development and use of new pro- grams and the expansion of others has caused a reexamination of the Library's future data processing requirements—both equipment and programs. New systems currently under development include: (1) An on-line input sys- tem to MEDLARS to permit direct communication between indexer and com- puter; (2) an automated acquisition and cataloging system (the cataloging subsystem is now being tested and will be operational on Jan. 1, 1966) ; (3) a graphic image storage and retrieval system which will be closely linked to the MEDLARS computer search capability; (4) a drug literature program with chemical search capabilities being added to MEDLARS; and (5) development of an intramural research and development program in information retrieval and scientific documentation. Rapid advances in computer technology along with important developments in the field of information retrieval will be useful in modernizing and expanding the MEDLARS system in the near future. For example, the recent development of very large capacity, random access storage devices could be applied to MEDLARS in improving the machine search process. The MEDLARS decen- tralization program is also expanding. In 1966, three new search centers will be added to the two already in existence. The Library had originally planned to install a new computer system during the period 1969-70. Because of the rapid growth of MEDLARS services (650 hours of H-800 computer time were logged in December 1965), and also the re- quirements of the newly developing systems described above, the Library be- lieves that the installation of new equipment must be advanced to 1968. The Library now plans to follow a modified timetable as follows: 1966: Develop systems specifications for (a) a new on-line input subsystem either compatible with the existing computer operating system or compatible with a new computer system if this proves to be more economical; and (b) a total NLM revised projected system requirements. 1967: Solicit and evaluate proposals for a revised or a totally new computer equipment system. Begin reprograming and conversion (by contract.) 1968: Complete equipment installation, reprograming. and conversion.0073714_000023.txt

Page  23 805 The Library will proceed to develop system specifications on the basis of the timetable described above for 1966, and request proposals later this fiscal year so that a contract may be let and reprograming and conversion begun in 1967. This would enable installation of the new equipment in 1968 by which time it will be critically needed. By 1968 the Library will have utilized the Honeywell 800 computer for 4*4 years. Although the computer was purchased in 1963, the rental amounts that would have accrued had the machine been rented will have exceeded the purchase and maintenance costs before 1968. One position and $154,000 are requested to begin reprograming and conversion for this program in 1967. Graphic image storage and retrieval.—The Library has identified 37 mil- lion pages in its collection as being in an advanced state of deterioration in- cluding 5 million pages of materials in such poor condition that a single normal usage will probably result in irreplaceable loss of information. In its archival capacity. NLM serves to guarantee the existence to inquirers in the United States of any publication relating to medicine, regardless of date or country or language of origin. As other libraries discard disintegrated materials, NLM must guarantee its survival for uses not yet foreseen. This responsibility derives from its statutory mission. Additional funds in the amount of $220,000 were recommended by the Senate Appropriations Committee for the use of this program in 1966. These funds allowed the Library to make progress in the preservation of poor paper. Additional microphotographers have been hired; new equipment has been purchased and old has been rehabilitated. The results of a collaborative studv on photoduplication system requirements by the Library and the National Bureau of Standards were received and a graphic image storage and retrieval conference was held in Bethestla in November 1965. On the basis of information and specifications in the report and the results of the conference, the National Library of Medicine is now preparing to contract for a pilot microfilming project to film approximately 1 million pages of literature. , One position and $50,000 are requested to step up conversion of deteriorated paper to microform and further the development of a mechanized graphic image storage and retrieval system in 1967. Automation of technical services.—Central to the functions of a national library is the assumption of responsibility for leadership in the development of new technology for the improvement of library methods. In the case of the NLM the capabilitv for leadership has been significantly enhanced by the data processing resource represented by MEDLARS ; NLM is the only medical library in the world with a computerized reference retrieval system. To date the svstem has been utilized to produce indexes, bibliographies, and mechanized literature searches. Using the same basic computer hardware, the potential exists for systems application to library operations in stich a way as to p?ovMe benefits not only for NLM itself but for 6,000 other medical libraries which may use computer-produced catalogs. . High priority has been assigned to the mechanization of library cataloging not only because this represents a significant added input to the existing MEDLARS system but also because of the economic benefits to other libraries which now independently, at high cost, are cataloging duphcatively the same books IiTjSSS1966, NLM plans to begin to use MEDLARS to initiate cen- traSed cataloging for the field of medical literature. This centralized catalog- ue soviet S only make information about new medical publications avail- abfe more promptly throughout the country but will decrease the total national osts of cataloging, a major factor in all research library budgets During 1967 it is planned to extend the application of automatic data process- ing to two other technical services: (1) Procurement of literature and (2) mfin^nalce of the serial record which lists all of the journals m the Librarys cXctioT Implementation of this plan will give the Library an improved svstem for processing the procurement of literature, for controlling the assmnla- tfon of new acquisitions into the Library's collection, and for expediting the preparation andI maintenance of the serial record making it possible to provide morP timelv information about the journal holdings of the Library. T^ complete,tK Library's planned program of automating its procurement. serial rewrd and cataloging procedures, additional systems support is needed- serial recorcv*nu ^n;£ * J,pr» The total effort would require five new posi- ^^n^^^^^^^h level »f automation with benefits and savings to the entire medical library community.0073714_000024.txt

Page  24 806 Strengthening library management.—The expansion of existing programs and the initiation of new and complex activities will create management problems of a degree of difficulty not previously experienced. Overall administrative management cognizance must be taken of the greatly expanded grants and con- tracts programs under the Medical Library Assistance Act as well as the expan- sion of existing budget and personnel functions. One position and $13,000 are requested for this program in 1967. MEDLARS DECENTRALIZATION MEDLARS is the only operational computerized reference retrieval system dealing with published medical literature. Exploitation of this development through extending bibliographic search capability to regional centers is clearly in the public interest. The Library began a pilot program of decentralization during 1965. Under this pilot program, two centers were established, one at the University of Colorado which has the same computer equipment as NLM, and one at the University of California at Los Angeles which has different com- puter equipment. These pilot projects have shown the desirability and feasibil- ity of decentralizing the bibliographic search capability of MEDLARS. Broad interest in the programs exists both in the United States and overseas. More than 30 American universities have expressed their desire to function as local search centers. Due to an increase of $250,000 above the President's budget request recommended by the Senate Appropriations Committee, the Library's budget for 1966 will support five decentralized centers. An increase of $74,000 is requested to support two additional centers during the last half of 1967. REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF GRANTS AND CONTRACTS An increase of $275,000 is requested to reimburse the NIH management fund for grants and contracts management services, to support advisory committees, to rent space to house the extramural program staff since existing office space at the National Library of Medicine is not adequate, and to provide for other administrative expenses associated^ with an expanded extramural program such as theNational Library of Medicine Board of Regents, the Subcommittee of the Board of Regents for Extramural Programs, the National Library of Medicine Training Committee, and other committees needed for program advice. New positions requested, fiscal year 1967 Librarian (2)...--------........------ Administrative officer________________ Digital computer systems administrator.. Medical literature analyst____......---- Librarian........---------......----- Systems analyst (2)..................---- Librarian (3)____........„..—-------- Programer (2)-----......__1L_J;..------ Systems analyst.............iij.------- Librarian (2)......-.....—...,-------- Programer_____________.------------ Do___-.....----------------- Indexer__.-----.....------------ Computer operator---.....-.....----- Clerk.................................... Typist......----....................... Total (22). GS-15 GS-15 OS-13 GS-13 GS-13 GS-13 GS-12 GS-12 GS-12 GS-11 GS-11 GS-9 GS-9 GS-5 GS-4 GS-3 Annual salary $34,110 17,055 14,685 14, 685 12, 510 25,020 31, 857 21,238 10,619 17,922 8,961 7,479 7,479- 5,181 4,641 4,149 237,591