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National Coordination Office for High Performance Computing and Communications Archives 1936-2017 (bulk 1980-2017)
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All Series Level Scope and Content Notes

Publications and reports, Congressional activities, meeting materials and minutes, Presidential Advisory Committee activities, conference and workshop materials, visual media used in presentations, correspondence, and transcripts document Federal HPCC Program and NCO/HPCC activities and accomplishments. The majority of materials in this archive were transferred from the NCO's original offices headquartered at NLM under the leadership of the NCO's first Director Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg; those documenting NASA and the Coalition for Academic Supercomputing Centers were compiled and donated by James R. Fischer and Susan Fratkin, respectively.

Together the collection represents materials about the need for what became the HPCC Program; the passage of the HPC Act of 1991 and subsequent bills, hearings, reports, and laws; the Program itself; and activities and publications of (a) the NCO, (b) HPCC agencies including NLM and NASA, (c) research universities, (d) the NREN and the Internet (ARPANET, predecessor to the Internet, had been created in 1969 by ARPA, an HPCC agency), (e) the President's IT Advisory Committee authorized in the 1991 Act, and (f) supercomputer centers, research labs, professional organizations including the Coalition for Academic Supercomputing Centers (CASC), corporations, and international organizations.

The 270 items about medicine and computing that NLM Director DAB Lindberg brought from his NLM office to his NCO/HPCC office when the NCO was established in September 1992.

Patient identification, DAB Lindberg et al on the medical engineering interface, communications satellites in health education, MEDLARS services, computerized bibliographic searches of medical literature, electronic publishing, information systems for the medical sciences, image storage and retrieval, etc.

Patient management, clinical decision making, etc.

Knowledge representation, computer networks, information-sharing systems, search and retrieval, machine translation, continuing medical education, computers in medicine, medical informatics education, etc.

Telecommunications, decision analytics, data security, fuzzy logic, computerized medical records, hospital information systems, medical writing, etc.

AI/RHEUM, biomedical education, 1950s-1970s materials about NLM, medical informatics, clinical decision making, DxPlain, AI in medicine, Human Genome, health communications, querying MEDLINE over the Internet, electronic radiography, etc.

International health, DeBakey work, searching MEDLINE, data for nurses, NREN, accessing full-text medical information, etc.

Deacidified paper, DeBakey on medical libraries, supercomputers and AI, automated vocabulary mapping, natural language search, physician attitudes, broadband, data collection, Bayes' Rule, library of the future, etc.

Expert system, AI in information retrieval systems, machine intelligence vs. machine-aided intelligence in information retrieval, Kanji characters, CAT scans, MPPs, search and dissemination, etc.

Knowledge organization, Bayesian probability, expert diagnosis, effectiveness of full-text document retrieval system, ethical and legal issues, etc.

The HPC Act of 1991, which was signed into law on December 9, 1991, requires an annual report to Congress. 535 copies of the report were hand-delivered to the Senate mail room every year, for distribution to each member of Congress. They were known as Blue Books from 1992 to 2005, then as Supplements. They describe the Program's goals and priorities, programs and activities, and funding by agency and by HPCC program element. The full series, through at least FY 2017, can be found at

Topics include the need for and what became the HPCC Program, HPCC agency activities, and policy.

About 50 items. Topics include supercomputers (including science and engineering applications that require supercomputing, U.S. leadership, access by university-based researchers, procurement, NSF supercomputer centers, the supercomputer industry, government policies), computer research, scientific computing and computational science, a national research network, NSFNET, information technology, human genome, imaging. Publishers et al include FCCSET, GAO, HPCC agencies, NAP, NCSA, OTA, SIAM.

About 35 items. Topics include NSF supercomputing centers, math, NREN, U.S. technology policy, ESNET, networking rural America, Gigabit testbeds, Supercomputing '91. Publishers et al include CSPP, DOE, FCCSET, GAO, NRC/NAP, OTA, NSF.

About 80 items. Topics include information infrastructure, computer science and engineering, massively parallel computing, software, NSFNET, intellectual property, DoD key technologies, NREN. Publishers et al include CRA, CSPP, CSTB/NRC, FCCSET, GAO, HPCC agencies, OSTP, OTA.

About 90 items. Topics include information infrastructure, HPC for U.S. industry, systems software and tools for HPC environments, collaboratories, technology for America's growth, Grand Challenge applications, "From Desktop to Teraflop", electronic delivery of Federal services, SC'93. Publishers et al include CBO, CSPP, FCCSET, GAO, HPCC agencies, NAP, OTA, supercomputer centers, the White House.

About 50 items. Topics include the Internet, parallel computing, R&D for the NII, healthcare and the NII, Peta(FL)OPS computing, Supercomputing '94. Publishers et al include CSPP, CSTB/NRC, HPCC agencies, OSTP, supercomputer centers.

About 25 items. Topics include the NSF MetaCenter, the Internet, GII, "Evolving the HPCC Initiative", telemedicine, the HPCC Program. Publishers et al include CSPP, CSTB/NRC, HPCC agencies, OSTP, supercomputer centers.

The thesis is organized into sections for the 99th Congress (1985-1986), 100th (1987-1988), 101st (1989-1990), and 102nd (1991-1992). Sections address technological context, the EOP including OSTP, Congressional activity, special interest groups, international competition, and funding; the sections for the 101st and the 102nd Congress address HPCC Program leadership.

The analytical framework for the thesis comes from "The Group Basis of Politics: A Study in Basing-Point Legislation" by Earl Latham, Octagon Books, 1952.

As part of his thesis work, in 1993 the author interviewed about 30 people including DAB Lindberg and other HPCC principals.

About 35 items. Topics include DoD mission successes from HPCC, health care and IT, HPCC Program, Gigabit Testbed Initiative, access to scientific data, telemedicine, Visible Human Project, NGI, critical infrastructure protection. Publishers et al include CNRI, CRA, GAO, HPCC agencies, NAP, OSTP.

About 20 items. Topics include NASA HPCC Program, HPCC (now ITR&D) Program, networking research, NHII, broadband, human-computer interaction and information management research needs. Publishers et al include CRA, CSTB/NRC, HPCC agencies, ITR&D Program, NASA.

About 10 items. Topics include NITRD (formerly HPCC) Program, software for dependable systems, competitiveness, high confidence medical devices, networking R&D. Publishers et al include CASC, IEEE, NAP, NITRD Program.

HPCC-related slides, transparencies, CDs, and videotapes on the topics of supercomputing, HPCC, telemedicine, surgery, Gigabit testbeds, NII, Visible Human Project, etc.

on 46 were donated by JR Fischer (NASA).

Topics include supercomputers and supercomputer programs, establishing an HPCC Program (the first bill was introduced in 1988 and the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, Public Law 102-194, was signed into law on December 9, 1991), the HPCC Program and its successors, basic research, competitiveness, Information Infrastructure and Technology (a successor bill to the HPC Act), telecommunications, NSFNET, access to Government information, computer security, health care applications, telemedicine, Congressional Ad Hoc Steering Committee on Telemedicine and Health Care Informatics, and NGI.

Representatives from computing system manufacturers, higher education, HPCC agencies (including DAB Lindberg (NLM and NCO/HPCC)), the library community, OSTP, PITAC, professional organizations, research universities, supercomputer centers, and telecommunications providers testified or provided input.

The HPC Act of 1991 has been amended in the Next Generation Internet Research Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-305), the America COMPETES [Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science] Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-69), and the American Innovation and Competitiveness Act of 2017 (P.L. 114-329).

Series 4 has HPCC Program reports to Congress. Series 8 includes (a) the first Congressional hearing held over the Internet (1993 Jul) and (b) the 1995 introduction of THOMAS (Online Public Access to Congressional Information). Series 10 has PITAC and PCAST reports to Congress.

ons 37-40 were donated by Susan Fratkin (CASC).

Also includes information about bills on improving access to information, improving technology transfer, computer networks, copyright protection for computer software.

Hearing also included testimony by AK Jones (DDR&E and CCIC Chair), J Toole (NCO/HPCC), ED Lazowska (U. Washington and CRA)

The members of the HPCCIT Subcommittee and its successors are representatives from HPCC Program agencies, OMB, OSTP, and the NCO/HPCC. The NCO director chaired the HPCCIT until 1999. The successors to the HPCCIT are the CIC then CCIC, ITRD, and NITRD. The HPCCIT initially met monthly, then less frequently beginning in the late 1990s as HPCCIT working groups and interagency coordination groups met monthly.

Documentation covering the day-to-day activities of the HPCC Program and the NCO/HPCC. High-performance computing and communications activities including HPCC agency activities and interactions with universities, corporations, professional associations, and foreign organizations, etc.

Includes two NLM BAAs (Broad Area Announcements): (a) Biomedical Applications of HPCC, on which NLM collaborated with ARPA, AHCPR, and NIH/NCI, and (b) Biomedical Applications for the NGI, etc.

The High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 authorizes "an advisory committee on high-performance computing consisting of non-Federal members, including representatives from the research, education, and library communities, network providers, and industry, who are specially qualified to advise the Director [of OSTP] with advice and information on high-performance computing." It was to provide an independent assessment of Program progress, need for revision, balance among Program components, and whether the Program's R&D "is helping maintain United States leadership in computing technology". Its recommendations were to be "considered in reviewing and revising the Program." The Presidential Advisory Committee on HPCCITNGI (PAC-HPCCITNGI) was established and held its first meeting in February 1997, and subsequently met about three times a year. In 1998 its name was shortened to President's IT Advisory Committee (PITAC). The Next Generation Internet Research Act of 1998 authorized the PITAC to review the HPCC Program's NGI initiative. In 2005 President George W. Bush assigned the responsibilities of the PITAC to the PCAST.

Includes materials for and from PITAC meetings and PITAC and PCAST reports.

Items in cartons 39 and 40 were donated by Susan Fratkin (CASC).

Topics include workshops, HPCC activities at NASA Centers, and NASA HPCC programs. Donated by James R. Fischer (NASA).

About 60 items. Includes reports from NASA-led and other workshops: Frontiers of Massively Parallel Scientific Computation, Grand Challenge Applications and Software Technology (1993), PetaFlops Architecture Workshop (PAWS '96), Data and Visualization Corridors. Includes HPCC plans and reports from NASA Centers including CSCC and JPL, NASA and other periodicals, and U.S. Global Change Research Program reports.

HPCC-related activities at NASA. Topics overall include Centers (ARC, GSFC, JPL) and programs (CAS, ESS, IITA, RE&E).

Created/authored by CASC and others. Topics include HPCC activities in academia and public policy.

About 90 individual items.

Topics include "Industry and the Universities", "Computing and Higher Education", telecommunications on college and university campuses, "Integrating Computing Throughout the Curriculum", higher education access to supercomputers, scientific computing, scientific data, "Government Information in Electronic Format", export control, HPC R&D strategy, supercomputer sites, Bush Administration, NREN, intellectual property, "Networking for Science", "Modeling Climate Changes", "Science and Technology in the Academic Enterprise", "High Speed Data Networks" and scientific research, Vannevar Bush, NSFNET.

Publishers include CASC, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, CRA, EDUCOM, HPCC agencies, NAP, OTA, Supercomputing Review, print media.

Donated by Susan Fratkin (CASC).

About 20 items.

Topics include activities at supercomputer centers (scientific computing, computational science, visualization), "Safe Computing", "Intellectual Property Issues in Software", NREN, "High-Performance Computing for Science", DOE HPCC program, Japan, telecommunications policy, Europe, K-12 math and science education, cyberspace.

Publishers include Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government; Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning; CSTB/NRC; GAO; HPCC agencies; OTA; Supercomputing Review.

About 20 items.

Topics include supercomputer centers, living in the 21st century, NREN including its security policy, technology and America's public schools, U.S. policy (economic and technological, science and technology, telecommunications, competitive strength), National Technology Initiative, Japan, NSF and its vBNS, youth policy and telecommunications, SC'92.

Publishers include Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government; EDUCOM; FCCSET; HPCC agencies; print media.

About 10 items.

Topics include "Supercomputing and the Transformation of Science", "Nongovernmental Organizations and Scientific and Technical Advice", "U.S. Information Industry", NSF Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on HPC and Branscomb report, "Science, Technology, and Government", "Information: An Interconnected World", mass storage, NII and each of: telecommunications, virtual reality, Grand Challenges, National Challenges.

Publishers include Academic Medicine; Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government; IEEE; NASA/GSFC.

About 15 individual items.

Topics include the Internet, clustered workstations, information superhighway / data highway / NII, HPCC, SC'94 (brain surgery, simulation, SCinet).

Publishers include ARPA, CASC, print media.

About 50 items.

Topics include Federal funding for science and technology, telecommunications/II, computing research, applications requiring HPCC, "From Desktop to Teraflop" (Branscomb report), U.S. computer industry, NII, cable TV in the NII, higher education and cyberspace, connecting classrooms and libraries and health care organizations, NSF supercomputer centers, the Federal role in supporting R&D to promote economic growth, "Virtual Environments and Distributed Computing at SC'95", Japan.


About 45 items.

Topics include wireless, information superhighway, cost of research, Internet (including as a government/university/industry partnership), NERSC and ESNET, R&D resources, digital government, NCSA, grid computing, HPC, NGI and "'Have-Not' Universities", the Supercomputing conference, science and technology for "America's Economic Future", networking for higher education, "Big Iron", science and engineering, workforce, nano, biocomplexity, NSF at 50, meeting society's needs, "Networking Health", terascale computing systems, "Digital Divide for Smaller Institutions of Higher Education".

Publishers include CACM, CASC, Chronicle of Higher Education, EDUCAUSE, Internet2, ISI, MIT, NAP, NCSA/UIUC, NSF, NSTC, U.S. Advisory Council on the NII, print media.

About 40 individual items.

Topics include "Embedded Computers", "Disruptive Technologies", "Bush Budget", "Science and Engineering Degrees", Internet, broadband, "Next Generation Science", E-Government, research universities, collaboration, supercomputing, cyberinfrastructure, revitalizing high-end computing, Grand Challenges, bioinformatics, Japan, competitiveness, applications requiring HEC, supercomputing centers, national security.

Publishers include CASC, Council on Competitiveness, CRA, EOP, NAP, NCO/ITRD, NPACI, NSF, NSTC, WTEC, print media.

About 30 items.

Topics include HPC assets and competitiveness, industry and NSF supercomputing resources, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm", "Academic Innovation in Advanced Computing" and competitiveness, cyberinfrastructure, "Impact of High-End Capability Computing", digital data, high-confidence medical devices, exascale, big data.

Publishers include Aspen Institute, CASC, Council on Competitiveness, DOE, NAP, NAS/NAE/IOM, NCO/NITRD, NCSA/UIUC, NSF.

Bibliography of contents of the NCO Library, which was started shortly after the NCO was established. There are two bibliographies, one sorted by accession number, the other by date. The Library was curated and these bibliographies were created by NLM librarian Jeff Bridgers. The NCO Library was initially on the shelves of the NCO's small conference room (38A/B1N30Q) at NLM. It was moved to NCO space at NSF when the NCO moved to NSF in December 1995, and was moved back to NLM around 2009. Some additions were made to the bibliography during the NSF years.